International public relations: A synopsis of German-speaking and Anglo-American research approaches

Diana Ingenhoff, Christopher Ruehl


This paper outlines concepts, research traditions, and the current state of art on (1) international PR as the internationally oriented public relations of multinational organizations and companies, (2) international comparative PR research, which primarily describes domestic occupational fields of PR within global settings and (3) international public relations of states, also known as public diplomacy. Since culture constitutes the central element of PR research on a global scale, we conclusively take a closer look at how concepts of culture can be applied with greater strength in international PR research. Furthermore, we address different strategic paradigms in international PR strategies along the continuum of standardization and differentiation, and thus outline their consequences for international PR.


International PR theory; International PR strategy; Intercultural communication; Culture and PR


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Studies in Communication Sciences | ISSN: 1424-4896